Books and Borrowing 1750-1830: Il étoit une fois…: The Advocates Library and the ‘Le Cabinet des Fées’

Original post from: Books and Borrowing 1750-1830: An Analysis of Scottish Borrowers’ Registers

When I began transcribing the borrowing registers of the Advocates Library, I expected to find that law reports, Session Papers, periodicals, and books of law were popular with the erudite lawyers of the Faculty of Advocates. I took stock upon the completion of the transcriptions for two registers covering the period from 1 April 1788 until 24 February 1791 (F.R. 262.a/15 and F. R. 262.a/16). These registers were chosen in accordance with our policy of focussing on particular decades as described here.

It was a surprise to find that the most-borrowed title was not a legal text or a work of history or philosophy. It was Le cabinet des fées, ou collection choisie des contes des fées, et autres contes merveilleux, ornés de figures a work of 41 duodecimo volumes published between 1785 and 1789.

Fifteen advocate borrowers between them borrowed 159 volumes from Le cabinet des fées between April 1788 and February 1791 This is nearly double the circulation of the next most-popular work, the Annual Register, another multi-item work which had a mere 76 loans in the same period.

It was clear that I needed to find out more about this collection of fairy tales and why the advocates were so interested in it.

The Book

There is a kind of Writing, wherein the Poet quite loses sight of Nature, and entertains his Reader’s Imagination with the Characters and Actions of such Persons as have many of them no Existence, but what he bestows on them. Such are Fairies, Witches, Magicians, Demons, and departed Spirits. This Mr. Dryden calls the Fairy way of Writing, which is, indeed, more difficult than any other that depends on the Poet’s Fancy, because he has no pattern to follow it, and must work altogether out of his own Invention. 

— The SpectatorNo. 419 (12 July 1712)

In August 1773, the Curators of the Advocates Library submitted a report to the Dean of Faculty about the results from their survey of the collection. They found several faults, including that the Library was ‘remarkably deficient in the modern classics’ and had ‘commissioned from abroad a very complete Collection of the most approved French and Italian authors’.[1] This marked a change in policy from 1757 when Library Keeper David Hume resigned his position over a conflict about his purchase of French stories and satires.[2]

Engraved portrait of Marie Catherine Le Jumel de Barneville, comtesse d'Aulnoy (1650-1705)
Marie Catherine Le Jumel de Barneville, comtesse d’Aulnoy (1650-1705).

French literary fairy tales emerged in the salons of Paris and the court of Versailles in the late seventeenth-century. They were inspired by Italian stories that featured ‘fairies, chivalry, and star-crossed lovers’.[3] Marie-Catherine d’Aulnoy, a novelist, memorialist, and travel writer was first to publish a French literary fairy tale, ‘L’Île de la félicité’, in her novel L’Histoire d’Hypolite, comte de Duglas in 1690. She went on to be one of the most prolific writers of fairy tales.[4] Between 1690 and 1715 the majority of French fairy tale writers were women.[5] Their stories featured elaborate descriptions and the assurance that the hero – or more frequently heroine – will prevail.[6] The stories could also be subversive and and satirical. D’Aulnoy’s ‘Belle Belle’, for example, has a heroine who disguises herself as a man and tricks a corrupt king into restoring property he has stolen.[7]

Charles Perrault’s Histoires ou contes du temps passé of 1697 included elements of folklore to his stories and increased their appeal for child readers by adding the character of Mother Goose as the supposed story teller.[8] Perrault, along with his niece Marie-Jeanne L’Héritier, an author fairy tales in her own right, championed the French literary fairy tale as superior to the Greek and Roman tales of the ancients.[9]

Table of contents from the Cabintet des Fees showing stories by Madame d'Aulnoy
Table of Contents page from the second volume of Cabinet des fées showing stories by d’Aulnoy, including one of her most famous tales, ‘The Blue Bird’ and her ‘Les Contes des Fées’, which gave the genre its name.
Table of contents page from Cabinet des Fees showing stories by Charles Perrault
Charles Perrault’s stories in the first volume of Cabinet des fées, including such classics as ‘Little Red Riding Hood’, ‘Puss-in-Boots’, ‘Cinderella’, and ‘Bluebeard’.

The translation of the Arabian Nights into French by Antione Gallard from 1704 to 1717 provided fairy tale writers with new ‘oriental’ motifs including genies and exotic locations.[10]

Stories from the Arabian Nights inspired the addition of ‘oriental’ character and themes to French fairy tales as well as being included in the Cabinet des fées

The French fairy tale proved to be an almost endlessly adaptable format encompassing a ‘myriad of forms, including oriental, sentimental, philosophical, parodic, satirical, pornographic, and didactic tales’.[11] The genre became more male-dominated as the decades passed. Jean-Jacques Rousseau used ‘La Reine Fantasque’ to promote his thoughts, but, for the most part, the stories came to be seen as more for pleasure than for instruction.[12]

The Cabinet des fées so popular with the advocates of Edinburgh in the late 1780s was the brainchild of its editor Charles-Joseph Mayer. Mayer collected and published what he saw as the best French literary fairy tales of the past century. He preferred moral tales with instructive messages and excluded tales that he identified as lewd or parodic.[13] Readers of the Cabinet des fées would find classic tales by d’Aulnoy, Perrault, and many others packaged in an accessible pocket-sized format with illustrations.[14]

The Borrowers

Ten of the fifteen advocate borrowers of the Cabinet des fées were mostly admitted to the Faculty in the 1780s. They would therefore have been young and starting in their legal careers. Others, such as John Maclaurin, who became Lord Dreghorn in 1788 having been admitted to the Faculty in 1756, were more established. Maclaurin’s interest in the tales may stem from his studies of ‘the language and literature of France’.[15] William Miller of Glenlee, the future Lord Glenlee (admitted 1777), married in 1778 and had nine children so it may be that he shared the tales with his growing family.[16] Half of the borrowers, however, were unmarried at the time of the borrowings so it seems likely that the fairy tales were borrowed for their own enjoyment. Perhaps they borrowed the tales to improve their knowledge of French culture and language just as the Curators of the Advocates Library had envisioned a decade before.

Borrowing record of Alexander Irving for three volumes of the Cabinet des Fees
Mr Alexander Irving – admitted to the Faculty in 1788 and the future Lord Newton – borrows three volumes of the Cabinet des Fées, 13 July 1790. F.R. 262.a/16, f. 171

Scotland, of course, has its own history of fairy belief and fairy writing. There is not the space to explore this here, but it will be interesting to see of another advocate, admitted in 1792, will borrow any volumes of the Advocate Library’s copy of the Cabinet des fées. I mean, of course, none other than Walter Scott who would become no stranger to ‘the fairy way of writing’.

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  • [1] The Minute Book of the Faculty of Advocates, Vol. 3: 1751-1783, ed. Angus Stewart (Edinburgh: Stair Society, 1999), p. 246.
  • [2] For this controversy see Brian Hillyard, ‘The Keepership of David Hume’, in For the Encouragement of Learning: Scotland’s National Library, 1689-1989, ed. Patrick Cadell and Ann Matheson (Edinburgh: HMSO, 1989), pp. 103-109.
  • [3] The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales, ed. Jack Zipes (Oxford: OUP, 2000), pp. 174-5.
  • [4] Her tales were frequently translated into English and she influenced British novelists including Clara Reeve and Ann Radcliffe. Christine A. Jones, ‘Madame D’Aulnoy Charms the British’, Romantic Review, Vol. 99, nos. 3-4 (2008), pp. 239-56.
  • [5] Oxford Companion, p. 175.
  • [6] Ibid.
  • [7] Christine P. Makward and Madeline Cottenet-Hage, Dictionnaire littéraire des femmes de langue française (Paris: Karthala, 1996), p. 38.
  • [8] Oxford Companion, p. 177.
  • [9] Ibid.
  • [10] Marina Warner, Once Upon a Time: A short history of fairy tale, pbk edn (Oxford: OUP, 2016), pp. 47-49.
  • [11] Oxford Companion, p. 178
  • [12] Ibid, pp. 178, 180. For Rousseau, see Patricia Murphy, ‘Fantasy and Satire in Rousseau’s La Reine Fantasque’French Review, Vol. 47, no. 4 (1974), pp. 757-66.
  • [13] Oxford Companion, p. 181.
  • [14] The National Library of Scotland has digitised the copy of Cabinet of fées in its J. F. Campbell Collection. NB: This is not the copy borrowed by the advocates. <>accessed 26 Feb. 2022. The images that accompany this article are taken from this digital copy.
  • [15] Lionel Alexander Ritchie, ‘MacLaurin, John, Lord Dreghorn (1734–1796), judge and writer’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: OUP, 2004). <> accessed 26 Feb. 2022.
  • [16] G. F. R. Barker and Anita McConnell, ‘Miller, Sir William, second baronet, Lord Glenlee (1755–1846), judge’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: OUP, 2004). <> accessed 26 Feb. 2022.

Job opportunities at Advocates Library

Advocates library crop

Two job opportunities have arisen at the Advocates Library:

The closing date for both vacancies is: 5pm on Friday 27 September 2019


Job vacancy at Advocates Library

Library Support Assistant Fixed Term until 31 October 2019
Ref 19.04
Hours 15 hours per week

Mon – Fri: 3.15pm to 6.15pm

Salary Scale Grade 6b – £16,531 – £18,226

(pro rata – FTE 35 hours)

The Library Support Assistant is an administrative role and the post holder will be part of a team responsible for maintaining the resources of the Library, in order to assist in the provision of an efficient service to the users of the Advocates Library.

Closing Date: 5pm on Friday 1 March 2019
Full details here: 19.04 Library Support Assistant

Employment opportunity: Senior Librarian, Advocates Library


Corridor - rare books
The Advocates Library

The Faculty of Advocates is one of Scotland’s most ancient and prestigious organisations. The professional body for the Scottish bar, the Faculty of Advocates is a membership organisation with the Advocates Library at its heart. Established formally in 1689, the Library blends tradition with its modern role as a busy working law library, providing a library and information service to members of the Faculty and acting as Scotland’s national law library. The Faculty also has responsibility for maintaining a formal relationship with the Abbotsford Trust- located at Sir Walter Scott’s former home.

Due to the imminent retirement of the present Senior Librarian, a rare and exciting opportunity has arisen for an experienced and qualified Librarian to fill this post. The post holder will be responsible for managing the Advocates Library, leading a professional team of 14 to deliver the best possible service to members of Faculty and the general public via the National Library of Scotland. Additionally, the post holder supports the links with the Abbotsford Trust, caring for the library and other collections hosted at Sir Walter Scott’s former home.

A key member of the Faculty management group, the Senior Librarian reports to the CEO and also works closely with the Keeper of the Library to develop the strategic direction of the library and implement library policies. The post holder will therefore have an in depth knowledge of modern library practice and be able to build effective working relationships, manage and develop staff and have a proven track record in delivering excellent service.

For further information, including a full job description, for this interesting and challenging role and to note your interest in the post please email quoting reference number 14.13.

Closing Date: Friday 29th September 2017 @ 5pm


ELISA Summer Gathering and AGM – report

This year’s Summer Gathering and AGM was held yesterday at the Advocates Library. Here is a very brief summary of proceedings:

Cleo Jones, ELISA Business Committee Chair, welcomed everyone and opened the meeting with an introduction to the work of ELISA.


Nominations for the Business Committee, 2016-17
Current committee: Cleo Jones, Fiona Laing, Lauren Thow, Jane Condie, Julie Johnson, Clare Donlan , Ellen Peacock, Iain Young, Kirsteen Urquart.

All BC members are happy to stay on. The existing Business Committee were nominated by Elaine Simpson and seconded by Julie Arnot to serve for another year.

Tour of the Advocates Library
After the AGM, myself and Senior Librarian Andrea Longson provided tours of the Advocates Library building and Parliament Hall. There was also a small display of a few treasures from our collection.

Many thanks to Andrea Longson for her time yesterday and while preparing for the visit.

If you were unable to attend, or if you’d like another visit, the Advocates Library will be participating in Doors Open Day again this year. That’s on Saturday 24th September. Also, if you’re interested, you can read more about the sad history of The Faculty Mummy on my blog  🙂

ELISA Summer Gathering and AGM

Mackenzie Building

Hello all

This year’s Summer Gathering and AGM will be hosted by the Advocates Library and will take place on Monday 29th August, from 2.30-5pm.

The meeting will be held in the nearby MacKenzie Building (pictured) where refreshments will be provided. After the AGM, myself and Senior Librarian Andrea Longson will provide tours of the Advocates Library building and Parliament Hall.

Please register your attendance via Eventbrite using your organisational email address (for administrative purposes).

ELISA Summer Gathering and AGM
Monday 29th August, 2.30-5pm

MacKenzie Building
172 High Street (Old Assembly Close)
See location on GoogleMaps

We look forward to seeing you there.